Pumpkin Pie Spice
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger and 1/8 teaspoon each ground nutmeg and ground cloves can be substituted for 1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice.
Substitute another chopped dried fruit for raisins. Golden raisins, dark raisins and currants can be used interchangeably in baking recipes.
Kosher salt, iodized salt, sea salt, or a non-sodium containing salt substitute may be used for table salt in baking.
1 cup butter or margarine can be substituted for 1 cup shortening. When using shortening in place of butter or margarine, 1 tablespoon milk or water for each 1/2 cup shortening used may need to be added. Do not substitute vegetable oil for shortening when recipe calls for melting the shortening.
1 cup plain yogurt can be substituted for 1 cup sour cream.
1 cup firmly packed brown sugar can be substituted for 1 cup sugar. Note: Flavor will be affected somewhat. 3/4 cup honey (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup) can be substituted for 1 cup granulated sugar.
1/2 cup corn syrup or molasses (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup) can be substituted for 1 cup granulated sugar.
1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/8 teaspoon cornstarch processed in a food processor fitted with a metal blade can be substituted for powdered sugar.