1-2/3 ounce semisweet chocolate (reduce sugar in recipe by 2 teaspoons) or 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or shortening can be used instead of 1 ounce unsweetened baking chocolate.
1/2 teaspoon ground all spice or 1 teaspoon ground cardamom can be substituted for 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon.
Dutch-processed cocoa may be substituted for unsweetened cocoa.
1/2 cup hot water and 1 teaspoon instant coffee granules can be substituted for 1/2 cup strong brewed coffee.
Can usually be successfully substituted for shortening to prepare baking sheets and baking pans.
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour or 2 teaspoons arrowroot starch can be substituted for 1 tablespoon cornstarch.
Corn Syrup, Light
1 cup dark corn syrup can be substituted for 1 cup light corn syrup, and vice versa. (Note: Flavor will be affected somewhat.) or substitute 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cup liquid.