1 tablespoon vinegar plus enough milk to equal 1 cup or 2/3 cup plain yogurt plus 1/3 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup buttermilk.
1 teaspoon dried parsley flakes plus 1/8 teaspoon rubbed, dried sage can be substituted for 1 teaspoon chervil.
Chicken or Beef Broth
1 cup hot water and 1 teaspoon instant bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) can be substituted for 1 cup broth.
Chocolate Chips, Semi-Sweet
6 ounces semi-sweet chocolate, chopped, can be substituted for 1 cup (6 ounces) semi-sweet chocolate chips. When substituting for chocolate chips, make sure to use the same type of chocolate
3 tablespoons chocolate chips or 1 square (1-ounce) unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar can be substituted for 1 square (1-ounce) semi-sweet
chocolate. 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 7 tablespoons sugar plus 1/4 cup fat can be substituted for 6 ounces semi-sweet chocolate. Bittersweet chocolate can be substituted for semisweet chocolate. There could be a slight difference in texture and flavor.
Chocolate, Sweet Baking (German's)
1/2 cup unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/3 cup sugar and 3 tablespoons fat can be substituted for 4 ounces German's sweet baking chocolate.